PATRICK RESEARCH WORK ON FEMINISM 1 – THE CONCEPT OF FEMINISM: INTRODUCTION

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THE CONCEPT OF FEMINISM: INTRODUCTION

After a long suffering and discrimination of woman in the society, she is nowadays playing an important role in society as a politician, socialist and economist. Those achievements emerged by the coming of feminism which granted woman’s rights.

This research work studies woman suffering, dehumanization and segregation by man. It deals also with the efforts of Feminism to change woman’s oppression in the entire world and to ask for her equal rights and existence in all the domains (politics, socialism and economy)

This research tries to see at what extend does feminism influence woman’s fighting path and to answer the following questions:

1. How was the situation of woman in the past?
2. What did feminism brought to woman?
3. Was feminism efficient to change woman’s life?

The questions asked in this research aims to find if feminism was able to change the stereotypical image of woman and to give her more opportunities to have a place in the society, this why this research hypothesis state that:

1. Feminism was able to eradicate the stereotypical image of woman.

2. It gave more chances to woman to be important members in the society.

After a long trip of making the world better by making new rules, inventing new things and changing ancient ideas and thoughts. Women were still struggling every moment and they were still looking for their rights. Feminism has generated an on-going debate in all over the world and it came to solve women’s problems and to put an end to the injustice treatment for them. It was the voice of women in times they were not able to speak or to express their feelings and wishes.

DEFINITION OF FEMINISM:

1.ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA

Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.
Whether as a theory, a social movement or a political movement, feminism specifically focuses on women’s experiences and highlights various forms of oppression that the female gender has subjected in the society.
Whether Feminism is considered as a social movement or a political movement, it specifically and mainly focuses on women’s experiences in her daily life, which she subjected to in the society. Since Feminists are able to feel and experience the pain and suffering of women they are totally convinced of what it means to be a “women” in Patriarchal societies. Feminists, therefore seek to remove all the barriers to equal social, political and economic opportunities for women and object to the notion that a women’s worth is determined principally by her gender and that women are inherently inferior, subservient or less intelligent than men.

2. ACCORDING TO MANY RESEARCHERS AND SCHOLARS:

A) Feminism refer it to the belief that women live an injustice life with no rights and no equality.
Zara Huda Faris explained this idea, as: “…Women need feminism because there are women who suffer injustice …”

B) Feminism represents women’s problems and suffering in addition to their dreams in equal opportunities in societies controlled by man i.e. his power, rules, wishes and orders.
Lara Huda Faris added also: “…women have traditionally been dehumanized by a male dominated society, which they call patriarchy; and that has been always better to be a man…”

TYPES OF FEMINISM

Feminism is both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women and the end of sexism in all forms. There are many kinds of feminism in which sometimes and each one of them gives principles and conditions for giving woman her rights.

1.  LIBERAL FEMINISM

Liberal feminism is a particular approach to achieving equality between men and women. It emphasizes on the power of an individual Person to alter discriminatory practices against women. It is considered as the most important kinds of feminism, which works within the structure of society to integrate women into it.

Liberal feminism aims for individuals to use their own abilities and the democratic process to help women and men to become equal in the eyes of the law and in society. By organizing women into larger groups that can speak at a higher level, push for legislation, and raise awareness of issues, those taking a liberal feminist approach will use the resources and tools available in our society to advocate for change.

Liberal feminism witnessed several waves of changes that contributed in its development and its power throughout the history. The main thrust of liberal feminism is that an individual woman should be able to determine her social role with as great freedom as does a man. Feminism therefore has required removing the historic structure of patriarchal law that denied women’s civil rights.

The major emphasis of liberal feminism include:

  • Equality of women before the law, in educational and professional opportunities
  • Change in marriage laws, property rights
  • Equal pay for equal work
  • Protection from rape
  • Wife battering in the home
  • Liberation from all dehumanizing forces.

In short, it aims at bringing equality between women and men in the framework of the existing social systems.

2.  RADICAL FEMINISM

Radical feminism is a philosophy emphasizing the patriarchal roots of inequality between men and women, or, more specifically, the social domination of women by men. Radical feminism views patriarchy as dividing societal rights, privileges, and power primarily along the lines of sex, and as a result, oppressing women and privileging men.
Radical feminism is a movement that believes sexism is so deeply rooted in society that the only cure is to eliminate the concept of gender. It started to emerge in the late 1960s by the famous leaders Ti-Grace Atkinson and Shulamith Firestone. It denies the liberal feminism claim that the lack of political or civil rights causes women’s oppression.

WHAT MAKES IT ‘RADICAL’?

Radical feminists tend to be more militant in their approach (radical as “getting to the root”) than other feminists. A radical feminist aims to dismantle patriarchy rather than making adjustments to the system through legal changes. Radical feminists also resist reducing oppression to an economic or class issue, as socialist or Marxist feminism sometimes did or does.
The reason this group gets the radical label is that they view the oppression of women as the most fundamental form of man’s domination, one that cuts across boundaries of race, culture, and economic class.

Radical feminism opposes patriarchy, not men. To equate radical feminism to man-hating is to assume that patriarchy and men are inseparable, philosophically and politically. (Although, Robin Morgan has defined “man-hating” as the right of the oppressed class to hate the class that is oppressing them.)

The major emphasis of radical feminism include:

A)  ELIMINATION OF PATRIARCHY
It aims is to challenge and overthrow patriarchy by opposing standard gender roles and oppression of women and calls for a radical reordering of society.

They raise the demand for the destruction of patriarchy. They believe they should be a shift from struggle for role and legal reforms to the destruction of patriarchy. The chief institution of patriarchy is the family and the family promotes patriarchy in the society.

It is a perspective within feminism that focuses on the patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the idea that male supremacy oppresses women.

B) BIOLOGICAL REVOLUTION

This group of feminists claims that the root of women’s oppression is biological. They believe that the physical subordination of women by men is the primary form of oppression and others are secondary.
Therefore, radical feminism believes that woman’s liberation requires a biological revolution. Radical feminism questions why women must adopt certain roles based on their biology, just as it questions why men adopt certain other roles based on gender.

They attempt to draw lines between biologically determined behavior and culturally determined behavior in order to free both men and women as much as possible from such gender roles.

Moreover, they believe that the whole system must be abolished even, its biological aspects. Radical feminism principles contains many interesting claims such as pregnancy and child birth in which they consider them as the most painful and unpleasant experiences that can person pass through.

They believe that the technology should be used to eliminate all kinds of pain particularly from the fundamental inequality of the bearing and rising of the children.

This must be the basic achievement because they believe that the heart of women’s oppression is their childbearing and childrearing roles.

Radical feminists believe that the male psychology or biology is the source of women’s oppression and pain. This is why they call for separation and the independence from men.

KEY ISSUES AND TACTICS
Central issues engaged by radical feminists include:

  • Reproductive rights for women, including the freedom to make choices to give birth, have an abortion, use birth control, or get sterilized.
  • Evaluating and then breaking down traditional gender roles in private relationships as well as in public policies
  • Understanding pornography as an industry and practice leading to harm to women.
  • Understanding rape as an expression of patriarchal power, not a seeking of sex
  • Understanding prostitution under patriarchy as the oppression of women, sexually and economically.
  • A critique of motherhood, marriage, the nuclear family, and sexuality, questioning how much of our culture is based on patriarchal assumptions.
  • A critique of other institutions, including government and religion, as centered historically in patriarchal power

KEY RADICAL FEMINISTS

The following are some key radical feminist:

RADICAL FEMINIST GROUP OF FEMINISM 

These groups include:

TOOLS USED BY RADICAL FEMINIST GROUP OF FEMINISM 

Tools used by radical women’s groups includes:

  • Consciousness – raising groups
  • Actively providing services
  • Organizing public protests
  • Putting on art and culture events.
  • Women’s studies programs at universities are often supported by radical feminists.

QUOTES FROM RADICAL FEMINISTS

1.  “All men hate some women some of the time and some men hate all women all of the time.” — Germaine Greer

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2.  “The fact is that we live in a profoundly anti-female society, a misogynistic ‘civilization’ in which men collectively victimize women, attacking us as personifications of their own paranoid fears, as The Enemy. Within this society it is men who rape, who sap women’s energy, who deny women economic and political power.” — Mary Daly

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3.  “I feel that ‘man-hating’ is an honorable and viable political act, that the oppressed have a right to class-hatred against the class that is oppressing them. — Robin Morgan

“In the long run, Women’s Liberation will of course free men—but in the short run it’s going to COST men a lot of privilege, which no one gives up willingly or easily.” — Robin Morgan

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4.  “Feminists are often asked whether pornography causes rape. The fact is that rape and prostitution caused and continue to cause pornography. Politically, culturally, socially, sexually, and economically, rape and prostitution generated pornography; and pornography depends for its continued existence on the rape and prostitution of women.” — Andrea Dworkin

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5.  Feminism is a theory, lesbianism is a practice.

  I propose that the phenomenon of love is the psychological pivot in the persecution of women.

  Love is the victim’s response to the rapist.

  The institution of sexual intercourse is anti-feminist

  Since the beginning of the Movement, lesbianism has been a kind of code word for female resistance.

                                   -Ti-Grace Atkinson

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6.  We are unalterably opposed to the presentation of the female body being stripped, bound, raped, tortured, mutilated, and murdered in the name of commercial entertainment and free speech.

Pornography is the undiluted essence of anti-female propaganda.

Women are all female impersonators to some degree.

ALL men keep ALL women in a state of fear.

Who said that clothes make a statement? What an understatement that was. Clothes never shut up.

Women as a class have never subjugated another group; we have never marched off to wars of conquest in the name of the fatherland. We have never been involved in a decision to annex the territory of a neighboring country, or to fight for foreign markets on distant shores. These are the games men play, not us. We want to be neither oppressors nor oppressed. The women’s revolution is the final revolution of them all.

                                 -Susan Brownmiller

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7. Romanticism is a cultural tool of male power to keep women from knowing their conditions.

Feminism, when it truly achieves its goals, will crack through the most basic structures of our society.

(Male) culture was (and is) parasitical, feeding on the emotional strength of women without reciprocity.

Men are thinking, writing, and creating, because women were pouring their energy into those men; women are not creating culture because they are occupied with love.

All men are selfish, brutal and inconsiderate–and I wish I could find one.

He has let her in not because he genuinely loved her, but only because she played so well into his preconceived fantasies.

                                -Shulamith Firestone

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8. Politically, I call it rape whenever a woman has sex and feels violated.

Feminism is built on believing women’s accounts of sexual use and abuse by men.

Women and men are divided by gender, made into the sexes as we know them, by the social requirements of heterosexuality, which institutionalizes male sexual dominance and female sexual submission.

Women are raped and coerced into sex.

Men, permitted to put words (and other things) in women’s mouths, create scenes in which women desperately want to be bound, battered, tortured, humiliated, and killed.

Empirically, all pornography is made under conditions of inequality based on sex, overwhelmingly by poor, desperate, homeless, pimped women who were sexually abused as children.

                           -Catharine MacKinnon

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9. The complete destruction of traditional marriage and the nuclear family is the ‘revolutionary or utopian’ goal of feminism.

A sexual revolution begins with the emancipation of women, who are the chief victims of patriarchy, and also with the ending of homosexual oppression.

Many women do not recognize themselves as discriminated against; no better proof could be found of the totality of their conditioning.

The image of the woman as we know it is an image created by men and fashioned to suit their needs.

The concept of romantic love affords a means of emotional manipulation which the male is free to exploit, since love is the only circumstance in which the female is (ideologically) pardoned for sexual activity.

When one group rules another, the relationship between the two is political. When such an arrangement is carried out over a long period of time it develops an ideology (feudalism, racism, etc.). All historical civilizations are patriarchies: their ideology is male supremacy.

                                                -Kate Millett

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10. Passivity is the dragon every woman has to murder in her quest for independence.

Until all women are lesbians, there will be no true political revolution.

All women are lesbians except those who don’t know it.

                                           -Jill Johnston

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3. SOCIALIST FEMINISM

The phrase “socialist feminism” was increasingly used during the 1970s to describe a mixed theoretical and practical approach to achieving women’s equality. Socialist feminist theory analyzed the connection between the oppression of women and other oppressions in society, such as racism and economic injustice.
Socialist feminism also known as Marxist feminism or Materialist feminism is an important movement of feminism. It calls for an end to capitalism through a socialist reformation of economy.
Socialist feminism argues that capitalism strengthens and supports the sexist status because men are the ones who currently have power and money. Those men are more willing to share their power and money with other man, which means that women have fewer opportunities and resources.
Therefore, they tried to eliminate the capitalist system and replace it with socialism, which collectively shares the wealth created by human labor.
Sexism benefits the capitalism, by providing a supply of cheap labor for industry.

They believe that most oppressions women suffer in capitalist society include low paid, low status or even no paid work.

THE SOCIALIST FEMINISM BASIS
The following are the basis of socialist feminist:

  • Socialists had fought for decades to create a more equal society that did not exploit the poor and the powerless in the same ways that capitalism did.
  • Like Marxism, socialist feminism recognized the oppressive structure of a capitalist society.
  • Like radical feminism, socialist feminism recognized the fundamental oppression of women, particularly in a patriarchal society.
  • Socialist feminists did not recognize gender and only gender as the exclusive basis of all oppression. Rather, they held and continue to hold that class and gender are symbiotic, at least to some degree, and one cannot be addressed without taking the other into consideration.
  • Socialist feminists wanted to integrate the recognition of sex discrimination within their work to achieve justice and equality for women, for working classes, for the poor and all humanity.
  • Socialist feminists reject the idea that liberation for women requires the abolition of childbirth. They seek to analyze the subordination of women as linked with other forms of oppression, and attempt to unite the fights for socialism with that for women’s liberation.
  • Under the socialist conditions, Marxist feminism believes that the restoration of women to autonomy is possible. Having equal salary for both man and woman was in the top of Socialist feminists‟ aims and demands.

SOCIALIST FEMINIST GROUP OF FEMINISM

These groups include:

Thanks for reading my article  on feminism next is PATRICK RESEARCH WORK ON FEMINISM 2 :THE CONCEPT OF FEMINISM: THE  4 WAVES OF FEMINISM

 

I will like to ask a simple question  for my fellow readers and viewers.

1. What is your own views and contributions on this articles?

2. Are you aware of existence of feminist and the movement feminism in your area? If so, explain

3. What are your perceptions of girls/women who call themselves feminist?

4.  Do these girls/women that you know enjoy been a feminist?

5. Does culture in any way contribute/support to feminist and feminism?

 

Please let me know all your reactions, views and insights in the comment box below!

 

Written by:

Kogwuonye Patrick Onyeka

Writer/Blogger/Educator/Tutor

University of Benin

Credited to :

Women who fight depression, molestation and thrive to be self independent, and to all feminist.

27 thoughts on “PATRICK RESEARCH WORK ON FEMINISM 1 – THE CONCEPT OF FEMINISM: INTRODUCTION

    1. Thanks for the comment.
      Some questions put to you here in the post where not answered.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      1. What is your own views and contributions on this articles?

      2. Are you aware of existence of feminist and the movement feminism in your area? If so, explain

      3. What are your perceptions of girls/women who call themselves feminist?

      4. Do these girls/women that you know enjoy been a feminist?

      5. Does culture in any way contribute/support to feminist and feminism?

      Please let me know all your reactions, views and insights in the comment box below!

      You are welcome

      #PATRICKSTORIES

      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      Liked by 2 people

    1. Thanks for the reblogged.

      I appreciate that very much.

      Thanks for the comment.

      Some questions put to you here in the post where not answered.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      1. What is your own views and contributions on this articles?

      2. Are you aware of existence of feminist and the movement feminism in your area? If so, explain

      3. What are your perceptions of girls/women who call themselves feminist?

      4. Do these girls/women that you know enjoy been a feminist?

      5.

      6. Does culture in any way contribute/support to feminist and feminism?

      Please let me know all your reactions, views and insights in the comment box below!

      You are welcome

      #PATRICKSTORIES
      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      Liked by 2 people

    1. Thanks for the comment.

      Some questions put to you here in the post where not answered.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      1. What is your own views and contributions on this articles?

      2. Are you aware of existence of feminist and the movement feminism in your area? If so, explain

      3. What are your perceptions of girls/women who call themselves feminist?

      4. Do these girls/women that you know enjoy been a feminist?

      5. Does culture in any way contribute/support to feminist and feminism?

      Please let me know all your reactions, views and insights in the comment box below!

      You are welcome

      #PATRICKSTORIES
      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      Liked by 1 person

  1. Feminism is required to bring awareness of worth and abilities to women. Feminism is confused as a competition against masculinity and can only remain strong when the focus is on the value of the differing qualities. Individuals must recognize their worth before expecting recognition and must work with patient love to be heard.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I strongly believe what you said in your quote from your comment:

      “”””””” Feminism is required to bring awareness of worth and abilities to women. Feminism is confused as a competition against masculinity and can only remain strong when the focus is on the value of the differing qualities. “”””””””‘”

      Here is another quote from my own personal renowned feminist to support what you said in your quote-

      FEMINIST Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi she says in her book:  We should all be feminist

      “””””””” Some people ask: “Why the word feminist? Why not just say you are a believer in human rights, or something like that?” Because that would be dishonest. Feminism is, of course, part of human rights in general—but to choose to use the vague expression human rights is to deny the specific and particular problem of gender. It would be a way of pretending that it was not women who have, for centuries, been excluded. It would be a way of denying that the problem of gender targets women. “”””””””

      Am happy you made such a comment on this post. I appreciate your time.

      Thanks for the comment.

      Some questions put to you here in the post where not answered.

      I will like to ask a simple question for my fellow readers and viewers.

      1. What is your own views and contributions on this articles?

      2. Are you aware of existence of feminist and the movement feminism in your area? If so, explain

      3. What are your perceptions of girls/women who call themselves feminist?

      4. Do these girls/women that you know enjoy been a feminist?

      5. Does culture in any way contribute/support to feminist and feminism?

      Please let me know all your reactions, views and insights in the comment box below!!!

      You are welcome

      #PATRICKSTORIES
      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      Like

  2. Patrick, you forgot Sheila Jeffreys among the most important radical feminists:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheila_Jeffreys

    Books

    Jeffreys, Sheila (1987). The Sexuality debates. New York: Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN 9780710209368.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (1990). Anticlimax: a feminist perspective on the sexual revolution. London: Women’s Press. ISBN 9780704342033.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (1993). The lesbian heresy a feminist perspective on the lesbian sexual revolution. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559176.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (1997). The spinster and her enemies: feminism and sexuality, 1880–1930. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559633.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2003). Unpacking queer politics: a lesbian feminist perspective. Cambridge Malden, Massachusetts: Polity Press in association with Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9780745628387.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Beauty and misogyny: harmful cultural practices in the West. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415351829.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2008). The idea of prostitution (2nd ed.). North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781876756673.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2009). The industrial vagina: the political economy of the global sex trade. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415412339.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2012). Man’s dominion: religion and the eclipse of women’s rights in world politics. Abingdon, Oxfordshire New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415596749.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2014). Gender hurts: a feminist analysis of the politics of transgenderism. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 9780415539401.
    Jeffreys, Sheila (2018). The Lesbian Revolution: Lesbian Feminism in the UK 1970-1990. Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1138096561.

    She’s my preferred radfem:

    “When a woman reaches orgasm with a man she is only collaborating with the patriarchal system, eroticizing her own oppression” – Sheila Jeffreys

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Oh am touch by this comment, this blew me away. Thank you for taking the time to share these books written by her. That is lovely.

      Thanks for that great quote you gave about the radical feminist woman.

      Beautifully written and as I read through again on each line I was amazed .

      This produced a smile on my tired face after a long day. You’re appreciated.

      You are welcome Ms TIMI

      #PATRICKSTORIES
      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      NOTE: “”” Ms “””” was attached here to your name because I believe you are a feminist and you run a feminist blog and also the way the popular FEMINIST Adichie Chimamanda Ngozi says in her book:

      According to a popular literature book “””. Dear ijeawele or a feminist manifesto in fifteen suggestions “””

      Here she says:

      “”””””‘ Mrs’ is a title I dislike because Nigerian society gives it too much value. I have observed too many cases of men and women who proudly speak of the title of Mrs as though those who
      are not Mrs have somehow failed at something. Mrs can be a choice, but to infuse it with as
      much value as our culture does is disturbing. The value we give to Mrs means that marriage
      changes the social status of a woman but not that of a man. (Is that perhaps why many women
      complain of married men still ‘acting’ as though they were single? Perhaps if our society asked
      married men to change their names and take on a new title, different from Mr, their behaviour
      might change as well? Ha!) But more seriously, if you, a twenty-eight-year-old master’s degree
      holder, go overnight frodo Ijeawele Eze to Mrs Ijeawele Udegbunam, surely it requires not just
      the mental energy of changing passports and licences but also a psychic change, a new
      ‘becoming’? This new ‘becoming’ would not matter so much if men, too, had to undergo it.
      I prefer Ms because it is similar to Mr. A man is Mr whether married or not, a woman is Ms
      whether married or not.

      “”””””””

      Like

      1. Actually my blog is “anti-feminist on the grounds of equality between men and women”: where feminism become too prevalent then anti-feminism is in need to reach equality, because women tend to achieve equality while keeping the old privileges.
        A good example being in the sentencing gap: women have equality under the law, women are not treated as a children, but still for the same crime women are sentenced WAY more leniently than men, using the old chivalry. The old system did make sense when women were dependent of men: less rights, less responsibility, less punishment. Now it doesn’t make sense, now it’s women have the same rights but less responsibility and less punishment, and that’s unfair towards men.

        Liked by 1 person

        1. So your blog is anti- feminist.

          Sorry I didn’t notice that.

          The language there is not English. I could not get most things you were writing.

          That was my own usage of the initial “Ms ”

          Love this part of your comment where you said

          “””””””” women have equality under the law, women are not treated as a children, but still for the same crime women are sentenced WAY more leniently than men, using the old chivalry.

          The old system did make sense when women were dependent of men: less rights, less responsibility, less punishment.

          Now it doesn’t make sense, now it’s women have the same rights but less responsibility and less punishment, and that’s unfair towards men. “””””””””‘””””

          I categorically divided it in to 3 part. Show your support against feminism. So therefore the name of the blog which define it purpose ” anti feminism “”” as you quoted in your comment above –

          “”””” Actually my blog is “anti-feminist on the grounds of equality between men and women “”””””

          Another reference again, why I said you comment look more of supporting the feminism was what you said about a quote from a radical feminist-

          ——–She’s my preferred radfem: “When a woman reaches orgasm with a man she is only collaborating with the patriarchal system, eroticizing her own oppression” – Sheila Jeffreys ——

          Another prove why I said you are a feminist again was the Link of Wikipedia you gave again
          https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheila_Jeffreys

          Finally you gave a full breakdown of her books also.

          Books
          Jeffreys, Sheila (1987). The Sexuality debates. New York: Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN 9780710209368.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (1990). Anticlimax: a feminist perspective on the sexual revolution. London: Women’s Press. ISBN 9780704342033.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (1993). The lesbian heresy a feminist perspective on the lesbian sexual revolution. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559176.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (1997). The spinster and her enemies: feminism and sexuality, 1880–1930. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559633.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2003). Unpacking queer politics: a lesbian feminist perspective. Cambridge Malden, Massachusetts: Polity Press in association with Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9780745628387.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Beauty and misogyny: harmful cultural practices in the West. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415351829.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2008). The idea of prostitution (2nd ed.). North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781876756673.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2009). The industrial vagina: the political economy of the global sex trade. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415412339.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2012). Man’s dominion: religion and the eclipse of women’s rights in world politics. Abingdon, Oxfordshire New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415596749.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2014). Gender hurts: a feminist analysis of the politics of transgenderism. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 9780415539401.
          Jeffreys, Sheila (2018). The Lesbian Revolution: Lesbian Feminism in the UK 1970-1990. Oxon: Routledge.
          ISBN 978-1138096561.

          That is food research you did about her.

          Thanks for the information.

          PATRICK STORIES appreciate that very much.

          You are welcome.

          #PATRICKSTORIES
          Peace ✌and Love ❤

          Like

          1. Egalitarian anti-feminism have more in common with “ideal feminism” than with actual western feminism: egalitarian anti-feminism claims that women must take responsibility, because with power it comes responsibility.
            Egalitarian anti-feminsim claims that women must be ready to support eventual stay-at-home male partners.
            Egalitarian anti-feminism claims that if a couple divorce, then children must stay 50% time with mothers and 50% time with fathers.

            I have most Sheila Jeffrey’s books in my library.
            I also had a gender studies class.

            So when I speak with a prominent feminist, it’s like that:

            They both know the enemy’s language…

            Liked by 1 person

          2. Egalitarian anti-feminism’s main enemy are traditionalists, then radical feminists.
            Radical feminists and traditionalists have a lot in common.

            Liberal feminists con be allies, sometimes.
            I esteem few liberal feminists, like Wendy McElroy, Christine Hoff-Summers, Camille Paglia.

            In my blog there’s even an appeal to sign a petition in favor of Camille Paglia.

            Liked by 1 person

            1. You are getting me confused now.

              Radical feminist and traditionalist do not have any thing in common.

              The major emphasis of radical feminism include:

              A) ELIMINATION OF PATRIARCHY
              It aims is to challenge and overthrow patriarchy by opposing standard gender roles and oppression of women and calls for a radical reordering of society.

              They raise the demand for the destruction of patriarchy. They believe they should be a shift from struggle for role and legal reforms to the destruction of patriarchy. The chief institution of patriarchy is the family and the family promotes patriarchy in the society.

              It is a perspective within feminism that focuses on the patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the idea that male supremacy oppresses women.

              B) BIOLOGICAL REVOLUTION

              This group of feminists claims that the root of women’s oppression is biological. They believe that the physical subordination of women by men is the primary form of oppression and others are secondary.
              Therefore, radical feminism believes that woman’s liberation requires a biological revolution. Radical feminism questions why women must adopt certain roles based on their biology, just as it questions why men adopt certain other roles based on gender.

              They attempt to draw lines between biologically determined behavior and culturally determined behavior in order to free both men and women as much as possible from such gender roles.

              Moreover, they believe that the whole system must be abolished even, its biological aspects. Radical feminism principles contains many interesting claims such as pregnancy and child birth in which they consider them as the most painful and unpleasant experiences that can person pass through.

              They believe that the technology should be used to eliminate all kinds of pain particularly from the fundamental inequality of the bearing and rising of the children.

              This must be the basic achievement because they believe that the heart of women’s oppression is their childbearing and childrearing roles.

              Radical feminists believe that the male psychology or biology is the source of women’s oppression and pain. This is why they call for separation and the independence from men.

              While TRADITIONALIST according to https://dictionary.cambridge.org/amp/english/traditionalist

              someone who believes in and follows traditional ideas.

              Secondly – an advocate of maintaining tradition, especially so as to resist change.

              Checking all these both are two different concept. Nothing in common.

              Radical feminist fight against traditionalist.

              Thanks for adding a little to my brain about the examples of some liberal feminist- like Wendy McElroy, Christine Hoff-Summers, Camille Paglia.

              You are welcome

              #PATRICKSTORIES
              Peace ✌and Love ❤

              Like

              1. Radical feminism is the very opposite of a biological revolution, since they oppose transgenderism, that is sex change and therefore biological revolution.

                They also are afraid by artificial wombs, therefore they OPPOSE the idea technology should be used to eliminate all kinds of pain particularly from the fundamental inequality of the bearing and rising of the children.

                In the 1970s, radical feminists such as Andrea Dworkin and Robyn Rowland have argued that artificial womb technology will lead to women’s demise. According them, as with any other reproductive technology, ectogenesis will fall in the hands of men, who will discard of women as they will no longer be the sole ones with the unique ability to bear children.
                “If we develop an artificial womb, women will be stripped of their role of “mothers” – a status that continues to save many women even in the world’s most misogynistic societies.” they say.

                “For the history of “mankind” women have been seen in terms of their value as child bearers. We have to ask, if that last power is taken and controlled by men (…) will women become obsolete?” Rowland writes. She warns that in the absence of the ability to bear children, women might be left with nothing to bargain with. In the most oppressive patriarchal societies, women are at least valued for their reproductive abilities. If they give up this right, they might expose themselves to unprecedented violence.

                Like

          3. A little detail: Chimamanda Ngozi did NOT marry a poor man.
            She married EXACTLY the kind of man she would have married under patriarchy: a famous and well-off doctor.

            How so?

            And, as a feminist, she agree that “the personal is political”, so her personal choice must be questioned.

            First rule of anti-feminism: don’t mind words, mind actual actions.

            Liked by 1 person

            1. What your point here.

              Where should will place her – radical or liberal feminist.

              Even if she marry a poor man. She will still be popular and she will still be a well know feminist. Those are personal choice which we don’t have to question.

              Questioning her goes against her fundamental human right to make a choice of what she like or whom aje want to spend her life with.

              The phrase do not center on the status of man being poor or rich.

              The man reason for that phrase – “The Personal is Political” goes in to 3 solid argument and
              2 distinct standpoints.

              3 solid argument

              1. First, they argued that this “public” / “private” divide excluded women from politics (either coincidentally or purposefully) as men were generally considered public citizens while women were confined to the private sphere as housewives and mothers, and therefore the “the personal is political” as women should have a place in politics as well.

              2. Second, they argued that “private” issues such as which partner in a marriage worked, domestic violence, and division of household labour are in fact political, as they are issues which concern the balance of power, and politics is about who has power, and how much, over who.

              3. Third, they argued that “private” bodily concerns such as abortion, reproductive rights and freedom, contraception, rape, men’s entitlement to sex within marriage, childcare, and other such issues should be considered “political”, and therefore open to debate and legal address, as they directly affected women’s lives and their place in society. 

              2 distinct standpoints

              1. politics should include women, who have historically been seen as private individuals.

              2. politics should include a wider range of issues, including those historically considered to be private.

              Here is the link for further reading and understanding.

              https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_personal_is_political

              Since she made that choice of whom to marry, you don’t have to question her. Since ” the personal is political “.

              Questioning her is a totally wrong.

              These are the point I can prove for now.

              Remember again ” Where should will place her – radical or liberal feminist. “””

              You are welcome

              #PATRICKSTORIES
              Peace ✌and Love ❤

              Like

              1. She made a political point by marrying a rich and famous doctor, since “The personal is political, also termed The private is political”.

                “The private is poltical” is a philosophical approach and a worldview, it’s holistic.

                Upholding “the personal is political” is a choice, and choices have consequences, and people must suit the standards they have freely choose.

                Therefore you cannot apply “the personal/private is political” to many issues and then claiming that some choices are “purely private, purely personal”. It doesn’t work so, either you believe that personal choices aren’t a political matter, or you believe that the personal is political and therefore every personal choice could be questioned by the public.

                I don’t know enough about Ngozi to classify her as radical or liberal feminist.

                Regarding her personal choice, in example her marriage, she seems a conservative woman, not feminist at all.
                Indeed in June 2018, Larissa MacFarquhar wrote, “the man she ended up marrying in 2009 was almost comically suitable: a Nigerian doctor who practiced in America, whose father was a doctor and a friend of her parents.”.
                It’s a very patriarchal choice, nobody believes that she didn’t meet many different men around the world, she seems very conservative, more than the average conservative western woman.

                Regarding gender, transexualism: she seems a conservative woman or a radical feminist. She’s a biological essentialist: she seems persuaded that women and men are totally different and there are more differences than similarities between women and men. Hence why she thinks that a woman surgically transtioning to man and getting hormones is still a woman, and she thinks that a woman surgically transtioning to man and getting female hormones is still a man. Such position is the same position of this man, a famous anti-LGBT, the USA vicepresident: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Pence#LGBT_rights

                Proof:
                https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/mar/13/chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-clarifies-transgender-comments

                She said that since transwomen have spent years living as men then they aren’t real women.
                That’s like saying that a girl who spent her first 20 years without being feminist, cannot be called a feminist even if she has become a feminist. Since she lack experience living as a feminist and she pandered to patriarchy for 20 whole years.
                Furthermore she downplays the fact that even before transition the transwomen behaved as women and were treated differently than other boys, often bullied for their feminine attitudes.

                Like

      2. In a traditional society:
        The status of a man doesn’t change after marriage because the status of a man is determined by money.
        The status of a woman does change after a marriage because the status of the woman is determined by the money.
        How so?
        Because in a traditional society men get money through work, women get money through marriage.
        Therefore:
        “Mr” = man with money
        “Mrs” = woman with money
        “Ms” = woman without money
        There’s no “man without money” because that’s a dead man, since women do not support men. And dead people do not have titles.
        Notice “r” = “money” and “s” = female.

        Liked by 1 person

  3. Let’s answer:

    1. What is your own views and contributions on this articles?

    I just cited Sheila Jeffreys, see my previous message.

    2. Are you aware of existence of feminist and the movement feminism in your area? If so, explain

    Yes, there are a lot of them in the mainstream newpapers, some of them even did a march against a friend of mine, this guy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRQGut-fed8

    3. What are your perceptions of girls/women who call themselves feminist?

    I suggest to avoid them like Ebola or Lassa fever or Hantavirus – AIDS is less lethal than them.

    4. Do these girls/women that you know enjoy been a feminist?

    Just only as long as they’ve men to bash around them – those men must be willing to be bashed and willing to apoligize, though.

    5. Does culture in any way contribute/support to feminist and feminism?

    Yes,I already said that there are a lot of them in the mainstream newspapers.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hi

      Thank you. I am happy to see your answer on the questions I asked you. Thanks so much for the time taken to do that. PATRICK STORIES appreciate the very much.

      You welcome Ms TIMI

      Cheers,

      From PATRICK

      #PATRICKSTORIES
      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      NOTE: “”” Ms “””” was attached here to your name because I believe you are a feminist and you run a feminist blog and also the way the popular FEMINIST Adichie Chimamanda Ngozi says in her book:

      According to a popular literature book “””. Dear ijeawele or a feminist manifesto in fifteen suggestions “””

      Here she says:

      “”””””‘ Mrs’ is a title I dislike because Nigerian society gives it too much value. I have observed too many cases of men and women who proudly speak of the title of Mrs as though those who
      are not Mrs have somehow failed at something. Mrs can be a choice, but to infuse it with as
      much value as our culture does is disturbing. The value we give to Mrs means that marriage
      changes the social status of a woman but not that of a man. (Is that perhaps why many women
      complain of married men still ‘acting’ as though they were single? Perhaps if our society asked
      married men to change their names and take on a new title, different from Mr, their behaviour
      might change as well? Ha!) But more seriously, if you, a twenty-eight-year-old master’s degree
      holder, go overnight frodo Ijeawele Eze to Mrs Ijeawele Udegbunam, surely it requires not just
      the mental energy of changing passports and licences but also a psychic change, a new
      ‘becoming’? This new ‘becoming’ would not matter so much if men, too, had to undergo it.
      I prefer Ms because it is similar to Mr. A man is Mr whether married or not, a woman is Ms
      whether married or not.

      “”””””””

      Like

    1. Thanks for sharing that video

      I appreciate that very much.

      That is a good way of showing he is really sorry for why he did. I love that attitude.

      You are welcome Ms TIMI

      Thanks for that

      You are welcome

      #PATRICKSTORIES
      Peace ✌and Love ❤

      NOTE: “”” Ms “””” was attached here to your name because I believe you are a feminist and you run a feminist blog and also the way the popular FEMINIST Adichie Chimamanda Ngozi says in her book:

      According to a popular literature book “””. Dear ijeawele or a feminist manifesto in fifteen suggestions “””

      Here she says:

      “”””””‘ Mrs’ is a title I dislike because Nigerian society gives it too much value. I have observed too many cases of men and women who proudly speak of the title of Mrs as though those who
      are not Mrs have somehow failed at something. Mrs can be a choice, but to infuse it with as
      much value as our culture does is disturbing. The value we give to Mrs means that marriage
      changes the social status of a woman but not that of a man. (Is that perhaps why many women
      complain of married men still ‘acting’ as though they were single? Perhaps if our society asked
      married men to change their names and take on a new title, different from Mr, their behaviour
      might change as well? Ha!) But more seriously, if you, a twenty-eight-year-old master’s degree
      holder, go overnight frodo Ijeawele Eze to Mrs Ijeawele Udegbunam, surely it requires not just
      the mental energy of changing passports and licences but also a psychic change, a new
      ‘becoming’? This new ‘becoming’ would not matter so much if men, too, had to undergo it.
      I prefer Ms because it is similar to Mr. A man is Mr whether married or not, a woman is Ms
      whether married or not.

      “”””””””

      Like

      1. He did nothing wrong, he was falsely accused and that was proved within a court.

        In my country there’s a bizarre law about stalking: everone can maliciously take advantage of it.
        Two typical examples:
        A man was charged with stalking because he used the parking of another man. That’s abusive use of other people’s parking, it is violation of private property, it’s not stalking.
        Another example is: a man has a debt, the debt collection agency calls him home multiple times, he sues the agency for stalking so he does not pay the debt, the debt collection agency also risks serious troubles.

        Liked by 1 person

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