PATRICK VIEW: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DONALD TRUMP SEXIST COMMENTS ON WOMEN USING “WRITER MILLS’ MODEL OF SEXISM (2008) AND WRITER VAN DIJK SOCIO COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK (2006).”

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PATRICK VIEW: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DONALD TRUMP SEXIST COMMENTS ON WOMEN USING “WRITER MILLS’ MODEL OF SEXISM (2008) AND WRITER VAN DIJK SOCIO COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK (2006).”

 

 

 

SEXISM

  1.  According to Wikipedia

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexism

Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s sex or gender. Sexism can affect anyone, but it primarily affects women and girls. It has been linked to stereotypes and gender roles, and may include the belief that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another. Extreme sexism may foster sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of sexual violence.

 

  1. According to other researchers/authors

 

  1. Sexism is the use of language to discriminate against women and to belittle and trivialize those activities associated with women. Sexism is defined as “the practices whereby someone foregrounds gender when it is not the most salient feature”. It, just like racism and other discriminatory forms of language, stems from larger societal forces, wider institutionalized inequalities of power and conflict over who has rights to certain positions and resources. Accordingly, sexism is an index of ongoing conflict between men and women (Mills, 2008: 1- Mills, S. (2008). Language and Sexism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

 

 

  1. Cameron (2006: 16) in her book (Cameron. D. (2006). Language and Social Politics. London: Routledge.) argues that sexism does not reside in certain words and phrases, but it resides in the beliefs that see women as being inferior to men. For her, sexist language can not be regarded as simply the naming of the world from one masculinist perspective; it is better conceptualized as a multifaceted phenomenon occurring in a number of complex systems of representation.

 

  1.  The term sexism is also used to categorize a set of stereotypical beliefs about women which cannot be directly related to a certain set of linguistic usages or features. Following Vetterling-Braggin(1981: 2) in his book ( Vetterling-Braggin, M. (1981) Sexist Language. New York: Littlefield Adams.) , a statement is sexist if it contributes to, encourages, causes, or results in the oppression of women.

 

  1. For feminists and writer such as Robin Lakoff in her book (Lakoff, R.(1990) Talking Power: The Politics of Language. New York: Basic Books.) Sexism in language simply reflects predicament of women in society.

 

 

 

 

PROVE 1 (FROM HER BOOK)

According to a popular literature book “”” DEAR IJEAWELE OR A FEMINIST MANIFESTO IN FIFTEEN SUGGESTIONS   “””

 FEMINIST Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi she says in her book:

From the sixth Suggestion

“”””” Teach her to ask questions like: what are the things that women cannot do because they are women? Do these things have cultural prestige? If so, why are only men allowed to do the things that have cultural prestige? It is helpful, I think, to use everyday examples. Remember that television commercial we watched in Lagos, where a man cooks and his claps for him? True progress is when she doesn’t clap for him but just reacts to the food itself – she can either praise the food or not praise the food, just as he can praise hers or not praise hers, but what is SEXIST is that she is praising the fact that he has undertaken the act of cooking, praise that implies that cooking is an inherently female act.  ”””””

 

PROVE 2 (INTERNET/SITE)

I will backed it up with a powerful statement made by FEMINIST/WRITER Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi where she mentioned “””” she is angrier about sexism than she is about racism “”””

For further reading here is the link to convince you.

https://givingcompass.org/article/chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-on-sexism-and-racism/

In Dear Ijeawele: A Feminist Manifesto in Fifteen Suggestions, FEMINIST/WRITER Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi writes that she is angrier about sexism than she is about racism. “I don’t think sexism is worse than racism, it’s impossible even to compare,” she clarifies.

“”””” It’s that I feel lonely in my fight against sexism, in a way that I don’t feel in my fight against racism. My friends, my family, they get racism, they get it. The people I’m close to who are not black get it. But I find that with sexism you are constantly having to explain, justify, convince, make a case for. ‘’’’’’’

PROVE 3 (FROM HER BOOK)

According to a popular literature book “”” DEAR IJEAWELE OR A FEMINIST MANIFESTO IN FIFTEEN SUGGESTIONS   “””

 FEMINIST Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi she says in her book:

From the fourth Suggestion

“”””” I am angry about racism. I am angry about sexism. But I recently came to the realization that I am angrier about sexism than I am about racism. Because in my anger about sexism, I often feel lonely. Because I love, and live among, many people who easily acknowledge race injustice but not gender injustice. I cannot tell you how often people I care about – men and women – have expected me to make a case for sexism, to ‘prove’ it, as it were, while never having the same expectation for racism. (Obviously, in the wider world, too many people are still expected to ‘prove’ racism, but not in my close circle.) I cannot tell you how often people I care about have dismissed or diminished sexist situations. “””””

 

PROVE 4 (INTERNET/SITE)

I will backed it up with a powerful statement made by FEMINIST/WRITER Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi where she mentioned “”” she is angrier about sexism than she is about racism “””

For further reading here is the link to convince you.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.pulse.ng/entertainment/celebrities/chimamanda-adichie-angrier-about-sexism-than-racism/5z32fs8.amp

 

FEMINIST/WRITER Adichie Chimanmanda Ngozi   :  ““”” “I said that because in my very own personal space, the people I love, the people I’m close to, my family, my friends, all get race.  So, I have never with them have to make a case, for why something was racist.

“So, I’m in my circle of friends, White people, Black people, Asian people, Hispanic people and when something happens to do with Blackness, immediately, we all get it.

“But with gender, I find that with the people I love, I’m constantly being expected to make the case, the ways in which, women are reduced, the ways in which authority in women is judged much more different than authority in a man.

“And I’m constantly being asked by the people, I love. So, I’m not talking about anonymous people, to make that case and it gets emotionally exhausting.

“Because, I don’t feel like I have the kind of effortless support that I have, when I talk about race. “””””

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TYPES OF SEXISM

 

  1. Overt  Sexism (direct)
  2. Covert Sexism (indirect)

 

  1. OVERT SEXISM (DIRECT)

 

Accordingly, Mills (2008: 11-12) in his book (Mills, S. (2008). Language and Sexism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)  is a type of usage which can be straightforwardly identified through the use of linguistic markers, or through the analysis of terms which are associated with the expression of discriminatory opinions about women, signaling to hearers that women are seen as an inferior group in relation to males.

 

 

 

Types of Overt Sexism (indirect)

 

  1. Generic pronouns

Generic forms are those elements in language which perpetuate a view of males as a norm or universal and females as deviant individuals. The generic pronoun “he” is the most well-known example of gender-specific or sexist language and is frequently referred to as “he-man” language, while being used to refer to both male and female authors in general (Mills, 2008: 65).

 

  1. 2. Generic nouns

Generic language is the language which presents male-oriented experience as generic or as the norm. For example, when discussing humanity as a whole, the terms “mankind” and “man” are often used. These are understood as truly generic (ibid. 67).

 

Many words are clearly male-oriented in that they contain the element “man” while they can apply to both sexes. These words include: chairman, newsman, salesman, councilman, etc.

 

  1. Word-endings (affixes)

There are certain affixes which are used to refer to women and which lead to a view of women as a deviation

from a male universal norm. These affixes include: lady, -ess, -enne, -trix, etc. They have connotations which the male terms do not have. These connotations are generally derogatory and trivializing. Terms like (lady poet, comedienne, aviatrix, hostess, etc.) have a sense of lack of seriousness about them, especially when they are compared with the male terms such as “aviator” and “host”. Many female terms are diminutive forms based on or derived from the male terms. The affix “-ette”, for example, can be seen to mean smaller than or less than (ibid.

70).

 

  1. Terms of address

Some English words show the lower social status of women. An example is the distinction between Mr. and Mrs./Miss which is not paralleled by a pair of male titles showing whether or not the bearer is married. This implies that it is more important for a woman than for a man to show whether she is married or not (ibid.).

 

  1. Insult terms

Insult terms used for women are sexualized. These include words like: bitch, ho, pimp, faggot, prostitute, etc. These terms incite violence and abuse towards women. The use of such words assumes that the relation between men and women is in fact like that between prostitutes and their pimps (ibid. 71).

 

  1. Ready-made phrases

Sometimes, phrases are constructed to convey sexist meaning. That is, the order in which paired terms appear presupposes and discursively signals the unequal status of masculine and feminine terms. It is quite obvious that the conventional binary terms consisting of male and female components foreground the male term to make it the focal area of these binary sets in an attempt to prioritize masculinity. Such a fronting seems very important in terms of information – processing (ibid. 85). Examples of the masculine term conventionally preceding the feminine are: (a man and a woman, a boy and a girl, a husband and wife). These binaries, when reversed, will be odd and tend to breach collocation or selection restrictionasin (a woman and a man, or a girl and a boy).

 

  1. Proverbs

Proverbs may also have hidden sexist messages. They are curiously cultural elementswhich reflect unanimous incontestable conventional common sense. Sexism can be reflected perfectly in proverbs to show how women fail to enjoy full and equal citizenship in a certain society. Some proverbs are considered to be sexist and women are considered to be the victims of evil-intentioned proverbs. Examples include the following:

– A woman has even cheated the devil.

– He who follows his wife’s advice will never see the face of God”

– Women have got a long hair and short sense.

– A woman is like a lemon; you squeeze her and throw her away.

– A Woman’s tongue cracks bones.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. COVERT SEXISM (INDIRECT)

 

The latter is a type of usage in which speakers express sexism whilst at the same time deny responsibility for it as in the use of sexist terms tied with humor or irony. Indirect sexism both challenges direct sexism and keeps it in play. This type of sexism is sometimes called “subtle sexism” or “new sexism”.

 

 

Indirect sexism is one which attempts to deny responsibility for an utterance by mediating the

utterance through irony or disguising the force of the sexist utterance through humor, innuendo, and embedding sexism at the level of presupposition, or prefacing sexist statements with disclaimers or hesitation such as “I don’t want to be sexist or politically incorrect but..” (Halberstam, 1998: 65).

 

 

 

 

Types of Indirect Sexism

 

  1. Humor

Humor often exaggerates certain features associated with a group or draws on and plays with stereotypical knowledge for comic effects. Humorous utterances, for example, will presuppose that men and women are different and exaggerate that difference which expresses the inadequate response to the interest of women .Lakoff (1990: 270) comments:

 

“Saying serious things in jest both creates camaraderie and allows the speaker to avoid re sponsibility foranything controversial in the message. It’s just a joke, after all”

 

An example of sexism being used humorously is the use of the term “It is the wife” as a way of introducing a woman to a friend. Such a use is sexist because there is no equivalent term such as “It is the husband” (Mills, 2008: 141).

Crawford (1995: 146) argues that irony is a common strategy for humorous remarks about women.For example, on Radio 1, DJ Chris Moyles often uses overtly sexist terms such as ‘tart’, ‘cow’ and ‘dippy’ to his female colleagues, mocking and belittling them if he interprets them as having stereotypically feminine concerns, but he does so by framing these remarks within an ironic, playful mode. When challenged about the use of such terms, the BBC generally responds by suggesting that Moyles’ use of these terms should be seen to be making fun of such sexist usage (ibid. 145).

 

  1. Presupposition

Following Christie (2001: 55), sexism at the level of presupposition is difficult to challenge because of the indirectness chosen to mark sexism and to give the speaker the potential for denying any intended hint of sexism.

For example, in the phrase “So, have you women finished gossiping?” there are a number of presuppositions which need to be unpacked, such as: that women’s talk is trivial, that two women talking together can be assumed to be gossiping, etc.).

 

Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (2003: 192) argue that implication may be sexist. They argue that male speakers often imply more than they mean. Thus, it is the implications of the words that are used which might be assumed to be based on sexist views. They note that when a speaker remarks that a woman is tall, he might be conveying that she will have hard time finding a suitable boyfriend. For Mills (2008: 147), hidden messages like these often do more to create and sustain gender ideologies than messages that are overtly conveyed.

 

Hellinger and Bussmann (2001: 10) state that this type of indirect sexism is better termed “social gender”. It is the association of certain terms with stereotypical beliefs about women

 

They argue:

“Many higher-status occupational terms such as lawyer, surgeon or scientist will frequently be pronominalized by the male-specific pronoun ‘he’ in contexts where referential gender is either not known or irrelevant.

On the other hand, low status occupational titles such as secretary, nurse or schoolteacher will often be followed by anaphoric ‘she’”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MODEL OF ANALYSIS

 

The chosen data will be analyzed according to a model which is adopted from Mills’ model of sexism (2008) and Van Dijk socio-cognitive framework (2006). The basic elements of the model are the following:

 

  1. Valuing women based on their appearance rather than their intelligence or personality
  2. Males as the norm, that is, females appear as dependent beings and as followers
  3. Women are weak, lacking in strength and ability
  4. Comparing women to inanimate objects
  5. Semantic derogation/disparagement of women
  6. Women are no more than possessions
  7. Negative evaluation of women
  8. Glorifying the maltreatment/mistreatment of women
  9. Vulgarity when speaking about women
  10. Negative presentation of women (adopted from Mills, 2008: 1-22)

 

 

 

DONALD TRUMP SEXIST COMMENT ANALYSIS ON WOMEN USING “WRITER MILLS’ MODEL OF SEXISM (2008) AND WRITER VAN DIJK SOCIO COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK (2006).”

 

After much research on the internet I was able to bring out proves to underpin this particular topic and the link is also provided for reference purpose.

 

 

  1. VALUING WOMEN BASED ON THEIR APPEARANCE RATHER THAN THEIR INTELLIGENCE OR PERSONALITY

 

PROVE 1

 

On Carly Fiorina

 

“Look at that face. Would anybody vote for that? Can you imagine that, the face of our next president? I mean, she’s a woman, and I’m not supposed to say bad things, but really, folks, come on. Are we serious?” [Sept. 9, 2015]

http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/trump-seriously-20150909

 

 

 

PROVE 2

 

Women on apprentice

 

  1. “It’s certainly not groundbreaking news that the early victories by the women on The Apprentice were, to a very large extent, dependent on their sex appeal.” [2004]

 

  1. “Oh and just to be clear, the success of women in those early stages of ‘The Apprentice’ certainly wasn’t based on merit; their victories were largely “dependent on their sex appeal”.  “I mean, we could say politically correct that look does not matter, but the look obviously matters. Like you would not have your job if you weren’t beautiful

 

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone

 

http://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-hillary-clinton-worst-secretary-of-state-in-u-shistory-

480136259729

 

http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/273233-trump-ad-clinton-not-tough-enough-to-faceputin-

isis

 

 

 

PROVE 3

 

On Ivanka Trump, his daughter

During 2006 appearance on The View, Trump remarked “She does have a very nice figure. I’ve said if Ivanka weren’t my daughter, perhaps I’d be dating her…..Yeah, Ivanka is really something and what a beauty that one….if I weren’t happily married and, you know, her father, I will be dating her. My daughter, she’s six feet tall; she’s got the best body. She made a lot of money as a model-a tremendous amount”

 

http://www.refinery29.com/2016/08/117766/donald-trump-sexist-quotes-on-women

 

 

 

 

PROVE 4

 

On Hillary Clinton

 “Does she look presidential, fellas? Give me a break.” [Sept. 6, 2016]

http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/donald-trump-offends-comment-clinton-lacks presidential/story?id=41891411

 

PROVE 5

 

On Steffi Graf

“You never get to the face because the body’s so good.” [Sept. 23, 2004]

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3u8gx0

 

PROVE 6

 

On Halle Berry

“I love her … upper body.” [February 2013]

https://www.thedailybeast.com/donald-trumps-gross-history-of-misogyny-from-rosie-odonnell-to-megyn-kelly

 

 

PROVE 7

 

On Beyoncé

“When Beyoncé was thrusting her hips forward in a very suggestive manner, if someone else would have done that it would have been a national scandal. I thought it was ridiculous … I thought it was not appropriate.” [February 2013]

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2278395/Trump-calls-Beyonces-Super-Bowl-performance-ridiculous-national-scandal-thrusting-hips-forward-suggestive-manner.html#ixzz3hhrvpJAx

 

PROVE 8

 

On Jessica Chastain

 “She’s certainly not hot.” [February 2013]

https://www.thedailybeast.com/donald-trumps-gross-history-of-misogyny-from-rosie-odonnell-to-megyn-kelly

 

 

PROVE 9

 

On Stormy Daniels

 “Horseface” [Oct. 16, 2018]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/1052213711295930368

 

PROVE 10

 

On Cher

 

 “I promise not to talk about your massive plastic surgeries that didn’t work.” [Nov. 13, 2012]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/268449053300383744

 

 

 

PROVE 11

On Mika Brzezinski

  1. “I heard poorly rated @Morning_Joe speaks badly of me (don’t watch anymore). Then how come low I.Q. Crazy Mika, along with Psycho Joe, came to Mar-a-Lago 3 nights in a row around New Year’s Eve, and insisted on joining me. She was bleeding badly from a face-lift. I said no!” [June 29, 2017]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/880408582310776832

 

 

PROVE 12

 

On French first lady Brigitte Macron

 “You know, you’re in such good shape. Beautiful.” [July 13, 2017]

 

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-usa-trump-brigitte-macron/president-trump-says-french-first-lady-is-in-such-good-shape-idUSKBN19Y2XT

 

 

 

PROVE 13

 

On Paris Hilton

 “Now, somebody who a lot of people don’t give credit to but in actuality is really beautiful is Paris Hilton. I’ve known Paris Hilton from the time she’s 12, her parents are friends of mine, and the first time I saw her she walked into the room and I said, ‘Who the hell is that?'” [2003]

https://www.thedailybeast.com/donald-trumps-craziest-interview-ever-any-girl-you-have-i-can-take-from-you

 

 

 

PROVE 14

 

On Arianna Huffington

 “Unattractive both inside and out. I fully understand why her former husband left her for a man — he made a good decision.” [Aug. 28, 2012]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/240462265680289792

 

PROVE 15

 

On Angelina Jolie

“Angelina Jolie is sort of amazing because everyone thinks she’s like this great beauty. And I’m not saying she’s an unattractive woman, but she’s not beauty, by any stretch of the imagination.” [October 2007]

https://www.accessonline.com/articles/donald-trump-on-angelina-jolie-shes-not-beauty-61181#Ad42aQ170GprOAmi.99

 

 

PROVE 16

 

On Angelina Jolie

“I really understand beauty. And I will tell you, she’s not — I do own Miss Universe. I do own Miss USA. I mean I own a lot of different things. I do understand beauty, and she’s not.” [October 2007]

https://www.accessonline.com/articles/donald-trump-on-angelina-jolie-shes-not-beauty-61181#Ad42aQ170GprOAmi.99

 

 

PROVE 17

 

On Kim Kardashian

 “Does she have a good body? No. Does she have a fat ass? Absolutely.” [Feb. 6, 2013]

 

PROVE 18

 

On Kim Kardashian

 Asked if her butt is big: “Well, absolutely. It’s record-setting. In the old days, they’d say she has a bad body.” [June 18, 2014]

 

 

PROVE 19

 

On Megyn Kelly

 “Bimbo.” [Aug. 7, 2015]

 

 

 

PROVE 20

 

On Lindsay Lohan

“What do you think of Lindsay Lohan? There’s something there, right? But you have to like freckles. I’ve seen a close-up of her chest. And a lot of freckles. Are you into freckles? … She’s probably deeply troubled, and therefore great in bed. How come the deeply troubled women — deeply, deeply troubled — they’re always the best in bed?” [2004]

 

PROVE 21

 

On Rosie O’Donnell

 “We’re all a little chubby but Rosie’s just worse than most of us. But it’s not the chubbiness — Rosie is a very unattractive person, both inside and out.” [2006]

 

PROVE 22

 

On Rosie O’Donnell

 

“If I were running The View, I’d fire Rosie O’Donnell. I mean, I’d look at her right in that fat, ugly face of hers, I’d say, ‘Rosie, you’re fired.'” [2006]

 

 

PROVE 23

 

On Rosie O’Donnell

 “Can you imagine the parents of Kelli … when she said, ‘Mom, Dad, I just fell in love with a big, fat pig named Rosie?'” [Dec. 29, 2006]

 

PROVE 24

 

On Bette Midler

 “@BetteMidler talks about my hair but I’m not allowed to talk about her ugly face or body — so I won’t. Is this a double standard?” [Oct. 28, 2012]

 

PROVE 25

 

On Bette Midler

 Two minutes later: “While @BetteMidler is an extremely unattractive woman, I refuse to say that because I always insist on being politically correct.” [Oct. 28, 2012]

 

PROVE 26

 

On Kristen Stewart

 

 “Robert I’m getting a lot of heat for saying you should dump Kristen — but I’m right. If you saw the Miss Universe girls, you would reconsider.” [Oct. 18, 2012]

 

 

PROVE 27

On Melania Trump, his wife

 When asked if he would stay with her if she was disfigured in a car crash: “How do the breasts look?” [April 11, 2005]

 

PROVE 28

 

On Tiffany Trump, his daughter

 “Well, I think that she’s got a lot of Marla. She’s a really beautiful baby, and she’s got Marla’s legs.” Motioning to his chest, Trump added: “We don’t know whether she’s got this part yet, but time will tell.” [1994]

 

PROVE 29

 

On women he has relationships with

“You know, it doesn’t really matter what [the media] write as long as you’ve got a young and beautiful piece of ass.” [1991]

 

PROVE 3O

 

On women, generally

To a female reporter: “We could say, politically correct, that look doesn’t matter, but the look obviously matters. Like you wouldn’t have your job if you weren’t beautiful.” [2014]

 

PROVE 31

 

On women, generally

 

 “I’ve got to use some Tic Tacs, just in case I start kissing her. You know I’m automatically attracted to beautiful — I just start kissing them. It’s like a magnet. Just kiss. I don’t even wait. And when you’re a star, they let you do it. You can do anything … Grab them by the pussy. You can do anything.” [2005]

 

 

 

PROVE 32

 

On Kristen Stewart

 

  1. “Robert I’m getting a lot of heat for saying you should dump Kristen — but I’m right. If you saw the Miss Universe girls, you would reconsider.” [Oct. 18, 2012]

 

 

 

 

  1. MALES AS THE NORM, THAT IS, FEMALES APPEAR AS DEPENDENT BEINGS AND AS FOLLOWERS

 

 

PROVE 1

 

On Hillary Clinton

 

“If Hillary Clinton can’t satisfy her husband, what makes her think she can satisfy America?”

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone

 

https://mobile.twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/880408582310776832

 

 

PROVE 2

 

On Hillary Clinton

 

  1. On another occasion, Trump batters Hillary Clinton saying “Hillary Clinton was the worst Secretary of State in the history of the United States. There has never been a Secretary of State as bad as Hillary”

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone

 

 

  1. The world blew up around us. We lost everything including all relationships. There wasn’t one good thing that came out of that administration or her being Secretary of State”.

 

 

http://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-hillary-clinton-worst-secretary-of-state-in-u-shistory-

480136259729

 

 

 

 

PROVE 3

 

On Hillary Clinton

 

Then, Trump says “Hillary is not tough enough to face Russian president Vladimir Putin or ISIS.

She is a lying bitch

 

 

http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/273233-trump-ad-clinton-not-tough-enough-to-faceputin-

isis.

 

PROVE 4

 

On Hillary Clinton

 

 

  1. “If she were a man, I don’t think she’d get five percent of the vote.” [April 26, 2016]

 

http://theweek.com/speedreads/620953/donald-trump-claims-that-hillary-clinton-man-dont-think-shed-5-percent-vote

 

 

  1. COMPARING WOMEN TO INANIMATE OBJECTS

 

 

PROVE 1

 

Beauty and elegance, whether in a woman, a building, or a work of art, is not just superficial or something pretty to see

 

http://www.ibtimes.com/42-horrible-things-donald-trump-has-said-about-women-nextrepublican-

presidential-2345140.

 

 

 

PROVE 2

 

 

(8) Rosie O’Donnell is disgusting — both inside and out. If you take a look at her, she’s a slob. How does she even get on television? If I were running The View, I’d fire Rosie. I’d look her right in that fat, ugly face of hers and say, ‘Rosie, you’re fired.’ We’re all a little chubby but Rosie’s just worse than most of us. But it’s not the chubbiness — Rosie is a very unattractive person, both inside and out.You take a look at her, she’s a slob. She talks like a, like a truck driver

 

http://www.refinery29.com/2016/08/117766/donald-trump-sexist-quotes-on-women.

 

 

 

 

  1. WOMEN ARE NO MORE THAN POSSESSIONS

 

 

PROVE 1

 

(6) “I think the only difference between me and the other candidates is that I’m more honest and my women are more beautiful

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone.

 

http://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-hillary-clinton-worst-secretary-of-state-in-u-shistory-

480136259729.

 

 

 

  1. NEGATIVE PRESENTATION OF WOMEN

 

 

PROVE 1

 

On women he has relationships with

“You know, it doesn’t really matter what [the media] write as long as you’ve got a young and beautiful piece of ass

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone.

 

http://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-hillary-clinton-worst-secretary-of-state-in-u-shistory-

480136259729.

 

 

 

PROVE 2

 

On women, generally

 

  1. To a female reporter: “We could say, politically correct, that look doesn’t matter, but the look obviously matters. Like you wouldn’t have your job if you weren’t beautiful.” [2014]

 

PROVE 3

On women, generally

 

  1. “There’s nothing I love more than women, but they’re really a lot different than portrayed. They are far worse than men, far more aggressive, and boy, can they be smart!” [1997]

 

 

 

 

PROVE 4

On women, generally

  1. “Women have one of the great acts of all time. The smart ones act very feminine and needy, but inside they are real killers. The person who came up with the expression ‘the weaker sex’ was either very naive or had to be kidding. I have seen women manipulate men with just a twitch of their eye — or perhaps another body part.” [1997]

 

 

PROVE 5

 

On the #MeToo movement

  1. “It is a very scary time for young men in America, where you can be guilty of something you may not be guilty of. … Women are doing great.” [Oct. 2, 2018]

 

 

  1. SEMANTIC DEROGATION/DISPARAGEMENT OF WOMEN

 

 

PROVE 1

 

 

On Arianna Huffington

  1. “Unattractive both inside and out. I fully understand why her former husband left her for a man — he made a good decision.” [Aug. 28, 2012]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/240462265680289792

 

 

PROVE 2

 

(8) Rosie O’Donnell is disgusting — both inside and out. If you take a look at her, she’s a slob. How does she even get on television? If I were running The View, I’d fire Rosie. I’d look her right in that fat, ugly face of hers and say, ‘Rosie, you’re fired.’ We’re all a little chubby but Rosie’s just worse than most of us. But it’s not the chubbiness — Rosie is a very unattractive person, both inside and out. You take a look at her, she’s a slob. She talks like a, like a truck driver

 

 http://www.refinery29.com/2016/08/117766/donald-trump-sexist-quotes-on-women

 

 

PROVE 3

 

Another occasion is when he sent a weird letter to a female journalist who, referring to his bankruptcy rumors, called him a “financially embattled thousandaire”. Trump allegedly sent the journalist Gail Collins a copy of her column, with her face circled and the words “face of a dog” written over it

 

http://www.ibtimes.com/42-horrible-things-donald-trump-has-said-about-women-nextrepublican-

presidential-2345140

 

 

PROVE 4

 

On Stormy Daniels

  1. “Horseface” [Oct. 16, 2018]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/1052213711295930368

 

 

PROVE 5

 

On Hillary Clinton

  1. “Such a nasty woman.” [Oct. 19, 2016]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2KOQfZ0Zd0

 

PROVE 6

 

On Democratic Rep. Maxine Waters

  1. “An extraordinarily low IQ person.” [June 25, 2018]

https://mobile.twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/1011295779422695424

 

PROVE 7

 

On Megyn Kelly

 

  1. “She gets out and she starts asking me all sorts of ridiculous questions. You could see there was blood coming out of her eyes, blood coming out of her wherever.” [Aug. 7, 2015]

 

PROVE 8

 

On Rosie O’Donnell

  1. “We’re all a little chubby but Rosie’s just worse than most of us. But it’s not the chubbiness — Rosie is a very unattractive person, both inside and out.” [2006]

 

PROVE 9

On Rosie O’Donnell

  1. “Rosie’s a person who’s very lucky to have her girlfriend and she better be careful or I’ll send one of my friends over to pick up her girlfriend. Why would she stay with Rosie if she had another choice?” [2006]

 

PROVE 10

 

On Rosie O’Donnell

  1. “If I were running The View, I’d fire Rosie O’Donnell. I mean, I’d look at her right in that fat, ugly face of hers, I’d say, ‘Rosie, you’re fired.'” [2006]

 

PROVE 11

 

On Rosie O’Donnell

  1. “Can you imagine the parents of Kelli … when she said, ‘Mom, Dad, I just fell in love with a big, fat pig named Rosie?'” [Dec. 29, 2006]

 

 

PROVE 12

 

On female reporter

 

A similar occasion is when he says about a female reporterAriana Huffington is unattractive, Sboth inside and out. I fully understand why her former husband left her for a man – he made a good decision.

 

http://www.refinery29.com/2016/08/117766/donald-trump-sexist-quotes-on-women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. NEGATIVE EVALUATION OF WOMEN

 

PROVE 1

 

 

“Women have all the great acts of all times. The smart ones act very feminine and needy, but inside they are real killers. The person who came up with the expression “the weaker sex” was either very naïve or had to be kidding. I have seen women manipulate men with just a twitch of their eye-or perhaps another body part. Women have even cheated the devil

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone

 

http://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-hillary-clinton-worst-secretary-of-state-in-u-shistory-480136259729

 

 

PROVE 2

 

 

(11) “There’s nothing I love more than women, but they’re really a lot different than portrayed. They are far worse than men, far more aggressive”

 

http://www.ibtimes.com/42-horrible-things-donald-trump-has-said-about-women-nextrepublican-

presidential-2345140

 

 

 

 

 

  1. WOMEN ARE WEAK, LACKING IN STRENGTH AND ABILITY

 

PROVE 1

 

 

(12) “The other candidates-they went in, they did not know the air conditioning didn’t work. They sweated like

dogs…..how are they gonna beat ISIS?”

 

 

 

  1. VULGARITY WHEN SPEAKING ABOUT WOMEN

 

PROVE 1

 

(13) In his interview with CNN‘s Don Lemon, Trump made sexist comments about Megyn Kelly: “She’s a lightweight and, you know, she came out there reading her little script and trying to be tough and be sharp. And when you meet her, you realize she’s not very tough and she’s not very sharp….She gets out there and she starts asking me all sorts of ridiculous questions, and you could see there was blood coming out of her eyes, blood coming out of her… wherever….Killy was a bimbo”

 

 

http://www.ibtimes.com/42-horrible-things-donald-trump-has-said-about-women-nextrepublican-

presidential-2345140

 

 

PROVE 2

 

On women, generally

 

 

  1. “There’s nothing I love more than women, but they’re really a lot different than portrayed. They are far worse than men, far more aggressive, and boy, can they be smart!” [1997]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. GLORIFYING THE MISTREATMENT OF WOMEN

 

 

PROVE 1

 

(14) “Women…. You have to treat them like shit

 

http://www.ibtimes.com/42-horrible-things-donald-trump-has-said-about-women-nextrepublican-

presidential-2345140

 

 

 

 

Trump declares unequivocally his hatred to women. He is against political correctness as he confesses “I’ve no

time for political correctness”. He degrades women and calls for the bad treatment of them. He says that women

should be treated as shit or defecation (i.e., as something with little value or trivial). “Shit” can also be used to

establish superiority over another being (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shit).

 

 

PROVE 2

 

(15) “My favorite part of (Pulp Fiction) is when Sam has his gun out in the dinner and tells the guy to tell his girlfriend to shut up. Tell that bitch to be cool. “Bitch be cool”. I love those lines

 

 

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Trump-seen-as-sexist-when-he-uses-personal-insultsagainst-

everyone

 

 

 http://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-hillary-clinton-worst-secretary-of-state-in-u-shistory-

480136259729

 

 

PROVE 3

 

On women, generally

  1. “26,000 unreported sexual assaults in the military — only 238 convictions. What did these geniuses expect when they put men & women together?” [May 7, 2013]

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Sexism in language is the outcome of implied ideological beliefs in gender stereotypes. Trump’s evaluation of women reflects his ideology about the superiority of males on females and how such ideological beliefs are ingrained in language and are difficult to be changed. It seems that Trump has a long history of making sexist, disparaging devaluation comments about women. Trump utilizes a variety of basic elements of the model analysis from Mills’ model of sexism (2008) and Van Dijk socio-cognitive framework (2006)   to underestimate women.

 

 

 

REFERENCE

Mills, S. (1995). Feminist Stylistics. London: Routledge.

 

Mills, S. (2008). Language and Sexism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

 

 

 

Van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Elite Discourse and Racism. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

 

Van dijk, t. A. (1995). Ideological discourse analysis. In e. Ventola and Solin (eds), interdciplinarry approaches to discourse analysis.Newcourant university of Helsinki.

 

Van Dijk, T. A. (1998). Ideology. London: Sage.

 

Lakoff, R.(1990) Talking Power: The Politics of Language. New York: Basic Books.

 

Vetterling-Braggin, M. (1981) Sexist Language. New York: Littlefield Adams.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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